Sarajevo is the capital and largest city in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is located in Sarajevo valley of Bosnia proper and is surrounded by the Dinaric Alps and situated near the banks of the Miljacka River. The city has a long history of religious diversity and tolerance, with worshipers of Islam, Catholicism, Orthodoxy, and Judaism, all making up its population. Because of this diversity the city has a range of different cultures reflected throughout the cities architecture and overall atmosphere.
The history of the Sarajevo area dates back to the Neolithic period. In its earliest centuries the area was settled by the Romans, the Goths, and the Slavs before it was captured by the Ottoman Empire in 1429. Four hundred years later, as the Ottoman Empire began to decline; the area was conquered and industrialized by the rising Austrian-Hungarian Empire. The start of World War I occurred in Sarajevo with the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria by a Yugoslv nationalist. The city largely avoided direct confrontation during the war and after it the city joined the newly formed Kingdom of Yugoslavia. During World War II, Sarajevo, as a part of Yugoslavia, was heavily bombarded, but recovered after the war. In 1992, with the former communist state of Yugoslavia declining, the city was surrounded by the Yugoslav National Army, prompting a siege which lasted until 1995. Sarajevo is now the capital of the independent nation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
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