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New Brunswick


The largest of Canadaís maritime provinces, New Brunswick is bordered by the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and Northumberland Strait leading to the Atlantic Ocean, the Gaspe Peninsula and Maine, USA. The northern region is rugged and mountainous, the highest point of which is Mount Carleton at 820 meters. The majority of the population resides in the south. The multicultural capital of Fredericton is the artistic center, with a population of around 50,000 residents at the turn of the 21st century. The largest city, With more than twice the population of the capital, the city of Moncton is the fastest growing city in New Brunswick, and is the transportation hub for the whole of the maritime region. As such, the economy is based primarily on transportation and shipping.


The Miíkmaq First Nations tribe is believed to have roamed the region as long ago as 4,000 years BC. It was not until the early 1500s that European exploration of the area began, under French explorer Jacques Cartier. A French colony was established in 1604, and over the next few years the population would begin to settle along the St. John River.

In 1713, a treaty was signed that made the region bordering Nova Scotia a British territory, and saw the majority of French settlers living under British rule. During the Seven Years War of the mid 1700s, the British also took control of New Brunswick. The fighting between British and Acadian settlers was relatively minor, and finally came to an end in 1759 when the British captured Fort Anne in what is now Fredericton.

Growth was modest over the next few decades, being primarily of British loyalists looking to build a future in the new world. A short lived immigration boom saw an influx of Irish settlers looking to escape the potato famine in Ireland.

Lumber and ship building became the dominant industries, shaping the region and the economy for the remainder of the 19th century. The world renowned clipper ship the Marco Polo, said to be the fastest clipper ship ever built, was the product of the New Brunswick ship building industry. The Marco Polo crossed the Atlantic from Saint John to Liverpool, England in just 15 days. Sadly, the ship sank off the coast of Prince Edward Island in 1883, the site of which is now a National Historic Site.

The region joined the Canadian Confederation in 1867, becoming one of the four original provinces. This caused some resentment in anti-confederates, and led to short lived trade embargoes with New England. New Brunswick had growing textile and forestry production, centered largely around the Moncton area, which brought the economy into the 20th century.

Over the next few decades, pulp and paper production and mining (New Brunswick maintains one of the largest potash mines in the world) became the newest industries. Forestry and fishing, however, remained the leading factors in provincial growth. The province is particularly known for its lobster and king crab.

Recently, tourism has seen growth, in large part for the regionís unpolluted natural wonders, such as Kouchibouguac National Park. New Brunswick also offers a variety of modern attractions and historic sights, from the New Brunswick Museum to historic Acadian and British settlements.

 Saint John 

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